What is a green economy
In the most accessible sense, this is an economy that efficiently uses resources, including recycled products, has a minimal carbon footprint and acts for the benefit of the whole society, and not individual groups of people.
The modern green economy is a global trend: increasing energy efficiency, introducing renewable and fundamentally new energy sources, respecting natural resources, environmentally friendly and conscious waste management, caring for the health of future generations and fulfilling international environmental obligations.
This also includes new technologies and materials to protect buildings and structures from sharp fluctuations in temperature, humidity and wind, the production of environmentally friendly products, including medicines and personal hygiene items on a natural basis without chemical additives. The trend can be traced even in consumer products such as furniture, household appliances, textiles: for example, a number of European countries label all products with the so-called carbon labeling, and the labels indicate the amount of greenhouse gas emissions generated during their production and transportation.
Financial instruments of the green economy
One of the options for financing “green” projects is the use of so-called “green” bonds, that is, raising funds through the sale of special “green” bonds. What it is? These are securities, the proceeds from the sale of which are directed pointwise to environmentally friendly projects. Green bonds were first issued by the World Bank in 2008. Today their market is growing rapidly. With the help of “green” bonds, for example, private wind farms are financed in Mexico and India, and solar power plants are financed in India, South Africa and Morocco.
Benefits of a green economy
In addition to the obvious benefits for people and the environment, a green economy has other benefits. For example, less costly production of energy resources, creation of jobs, equal living conditions for all people. One of the world leaders in the field of green economy is South Korea. This country has long taken a course towards “green” economic development: for example, only one environmentally friendly transport has become an impetus for the development of the national auto industry and significantly reduced the amount of emissions into the atmosphere. The top three countries in terms of investments in green economy projects look like this: China, America and Japan.
“Green” economy in Russia
In 2013, the government adopted a Declaration on the implementation of the principles of a green economy in Russia. According to the document, all economic activity of the country should be gradually transformed to take into account new environmental challenges. The goal is the most humane: it is a high quality of life and a safe environment for health. And, of course, the preservation of unique natural sites, including the Volga River, Lake Baikal and Teletskoye.
Green Economy Challenges
Half of the residents of Russian cities live in conditions of high levels of air pollution, public and private vehicles account for up to 90% of all emissions, and most surface waters are considered not just polluted, but extremely dirty. Approximately 10 percent of the inhabitants are unable to drink quality water. These are the main problems of the green economy that require an early solution and the development of national programs.
However, our “green” economy also has its achievements. For example, oil and gas companies received an environmental responsibility rating, they adopted a biodiversity conservation policy. Each region of Russia has its own environmental and economic index, and the rules and procedures for public procurement must take into account energy efficiency requirements.
It is expected that by 2030 Russia will come close to becoming a “green” economy, despite the global crisis associated with the pandemic. Each of us can speed up this process: sorting garbage, choosing organic products, handing over recycled textiles, paper, plastic for recycling.