Pigment spot is an area of excessive accumulation of melanin — a special pigment located in different layers of the epidermis.
When it is deposited in the upper layer of the skin, small spots (for example, freckles or moles) are formed. They can be from light yellow to brown in color and, in most cases, do not cause their owner a lot of trouble and worries.
Hyperpigmentation, which is deposited in the deeper layers of the epidermis, looks completely different — dark brown spots appear on the surface of the skin (they can rise above the surface of the skin).
Pigment spots can appear both in young people and in people over 50. As a rule, their appearance is more likely at the age of 35-40. In isolated cases, they pass spontaneously, much more often, getting rid of them requires considerable effort.
Types of pigment spots:
- Chloasma is one of the most common types. Brown spots.
- Melasma. Spots of gray, bluish or brown color, as a rule, with a clear outline.
- Lentigo. These are round or oblong spots of a brown shade with a diameter of 0.5-1.5 cm, which often appear with age. They require a histological examination, as they can develop into malignant neoplasms.
- Vitiligo White spots caused by the loss of melanin in the skin. Areas with disturbed pigmentation later increase in size. Today, doctors have not yet sufficiently studied the causes of vitiligo, and it is almost impossible to cure this disease. It is only known that vitiligo appears on the basis of genetic predisposition, as well as due to autoimmune diseases.
The causes of pigment spots can be:
1. Genetic predisposition.
The hereditary deficiency of collagen fibers is important here, which can cause the destruction of the supporting layers of the skin (basement membrane) and the penetration of pigment into the deep layers of the skin. And what gets behind the basement membrane is very difficult for us to «get». Therefore, such cases of pigmentation are the most persistent.
2. Hormonal imbalance.
Spots that have a saturated color and an irregular shape are called chloasma. They most often occur during menstruation and pregnancy, as well as in the first year after the birth of a child. Trying to get rid of such a manifestation of pigmentation on your own is categorically not recommended. Therefore, before doing anything, you should consult a doctor.
3. Excessive love of tanning.
Ultraviolet affects melanocytes. These cells are responsible for the production of melanin in our body. With their correct stimulation, our skin is covered with an even and beautiful tan. When there is too much ultraviolet, melanin is produced in excessive doses, which leads to the formation of pigment spots in places where it is unevenly distributed.
Most often, pigmentation can occur after chemical or thermal burns, a severe case of acne, furunculosis. Melanin serves us as a protective mechanism, so in places of skin damage, its amount is greater and the skin acquires a dark color.
5. Diseases of internal organs.
Often, the appearance of pigment spots can be caused by problems in the work of the intestines, kidneys, liver and gall bladder. Each of the diseases colors the spots in a certain color — from yellowish-brown to red. Of course, you should consult a doctor before starting the treatment and it can be quite long, but most of these spots disappear with proper nutrition and proper lifestyle.
6. Nervous disorders and frequent stress.
This is a fairly common reason for the formation of pigmentation, because as a result of a mental disorder, the metabolism is also disturbed, which leads to a hormonal imbalance.
7. Taking certain medicines and allergic reaction.
In this case, a repeat visit to the doctor is mandatory so that he prescribes another drug.
8. Age-related changes in the body.
An increase in the level of melanin and its uneven distribution are due to aging of the skin, hormonal changes and chronic diseases.
How to deal with pigmentation?
Autumn and winter are ideal for fighting pigmentation. The main role in getting rid of pigmentation is played by components such as vitamin C, acids and plant extracts (for example, milkweed extract, from which arbutin is obtained) and retinol (vitamin A and its derivatives).
We has compiled a list of tools that have already proven their effectiveness.
Caudalie Depigmenting Radiant Complexion Correcting Serum:
- gives the skin a natural shine and restores its natural beauty;
- saturates with the necessary useful trace elements;
- maintains optimal water balance;
- protects against the appearance of acne;
- actively affects pigment spots, eliminates them and provides a preventive effect to avoid their reappearance;
- instantly refreshes, giving a light «cool» effect and improves skin tone.
Uriage depiderm intensive depigmentation care:
- recommended age category is 18+;
- ccontributes to lightening and leveling of skin color;
- helps maintain the necessary hydrological balance;
- tones, refreshes the skin and fills it with useful trace elements.
Genosys Whitening Nanoserum for the face:
- used for microneedling;
- moisturizes and heals the skin;
- lightens pigmentation;
- fights wrinkles;
- stimulates tissue regeneration;
- slows down skin aging;
- increases elasticity;
- improves complexion.